Review of literature – West Bengal Context – Selective
The Institute of Cost Accountants of India published in JULY 2015 The Management Accountant written by Sri Tapadhan Roy, Deputy Manager, Malda District Central Cooperative Bank Ltd., Malda and Sri Kaushik Sen, Junior Manager, Malda District Central Cooperative Bank Ltd., Malda.
Conclusion is that the district cooperative banks are playing a major role in deposit mobilisation and disbursal of microcredit for SHGs in backward areas. They also infuse repeat credits for timely repayment of loans. The revolving fund and community investment fund (CIF) are provided by NRLM to SHGs to build financial confidence and a healthy track record to attract mainstream bank finance.
And they pointed out some of the important threats identified for SHGs are:
- Lack of consciousness and reluctant behaviour among some members.
- Stringent government regulations hinder innovative ideas of groups.
- Despite improvements of thoughts and beliefs, gender sensitisation has a long way to go, especially in villages.
- The final products of SHG members often do not find proper distribution channels, resulting in inadequate sales which demoralises the spirit of members.
- Other inhibiting factors consist of caste problems, village politics, intra-group conflicts etc.
Rabin Das, Assistant Professor of Geography, Bajkul Milani Mahavidyalaya (Vidyasagar University) conducted a study titled “Emergence and Activities of Self-Help Group (SHG) – A Great Effort and Implementation for Women‟s Empowerment as well as Rural development.”- A Study on Khejuri CD Blocks in Purba Medinipur, West Bengal and published in IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), Volume 20, Issue 1, Ver. V (Jan. 2015), PP 28-39, e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845.
The study attempted to find answer to the questions –
- Are the women members of SHGs in the selected area empowered?
- To what extent the selected women members of SHGs are empowered?
- Has the extent of women empowerment improved over a period of time?
- What are the factors influencing women empowerment?
- To what extent SHGs have played their role in women empowerment?
In the process, it dealt with all the indicators of women empowerment. The study also analyses the attitude of SHG members towards women empowerment. Conclusion is that the involvement of women in Self Help Groups (SHGs) made a momentous impact on their empowerment both in social and economical aspects. This study addresses women empowerment as well as rural development through self help groups of Khejuri CD Blocks in Purba Medinipur district of West Bengal. The information requisite for the study has been collected from both the primary and secondary sources. A multistage random sampling method has been followed. Average and percentage analysis was accepted out to draw significant interpretation of the results. Factor analysis was used to measure the relationship between the observed variables. The outcome of the study revealed that the SHGs have had greater impact on both economic and social aspects of the beneficiaries.
Karmakar, Ranjit and Ghosh, Bolanath (2002), critically examined the role of women in SHG formation and also the issue of cooperation in a detailed manner through their study entitled “Role of women in the SHG; An emerging possibility to co-operahvlzahon at grass-root”.
The study examined the performance of the Self Help Groups and co-operative societies in Midnapore district of West Bengal. Altogether 20 self help groups emerged in the Sankrail area of the Midnapore district are functioning well in the area. Experiments of SHGs are each SHG comprises 10 – 20 members. Women meet together for the SHG meetings and at the same time they gain some knowledge of different problems of the village and their development also. Groups rotate the money to the needy members for various purposes at a specified interest rate. As the repayment is cent per cent and the recycling is very fast, the savings amount increases faster. The saving habit paves the way for the empowerment of women and builds up confidence in them that they could stand on their own feet. Self Help Groups are linked with the banks for the external credit under the projects of rural development. Banks provide financial assistance for various entrepreneurial activities such as setting up of petty shops, vegetables shops, tailoring – units, charcoal making units and dairying etc. Self-Help Groups enhance the equality of status of women as participant decision makers and beneficiaries in the democratic, economic, social and cultural spheres of life.
Study on Comparative Knowledge Level about Improved Dairy, Farming Practices of SHG & Non-SHG Members in West Bengal by Sukanta Biswas1, D. P. Sikdar2 and A. Goswami3
[1. Lecturer/SMS (AnimalSc.), DDKVK, UBKV,Majhian, D. Dinajpur,W.B. 2. Asso. Prof., University of Kalyani, Kalyani, Nadia,W.B., 3. Director, Distance Education, University of Kalyani, Nadia,W.B.].
The study was conducted in purposively selected Dakshin Dinajpur district of West Bengal. The data was collected through personal interview with the help of tested structured schedule administered on randomly selected 80 SHG members from the 8 blocks of the district. Two villages from each block and from each village, five respondents were selected
randomly. In this way, total 80 SHG beneficiaries and similar number of respondents (80) from same blocks as Non-SHG beneficiaries rearing livestock were considered to make as control group for comparative study with the SHG beneficiaries. To judge the impact of the study, dependent variables such as- adoption Index and Knowledge level about improved Dairy farming practices were measured by using the available scales. The data thus generated was computed and analysed by various statistical methods for better interpretation of the result. The study depicted that higher Knowledge in IAHP, AI, Deworming, Vaccination, Feeding of Green Fodder and Concentrate feed were positively associated with increase occupational standard, caste, farm power, economic motivation, information sources utilization, urban contact, attitude in dairy farming and income generation for SHG dairy farmers. The study finally suggested that the overall knowledge gain of SHG farmers in IAHP is quite better than that of Non-SHG farmers due to their efficient training orientation, raised literacy level, Market orientation and Farm Power etc.
Empowerment of women through self help group approach: Empirical evidence from west Bengal, India Sanchita Garai1 Gouranga Mazumder2 and Sanjit Maiti3 [1Division of Dairy Extension, NDRI, Karnal – 132001, Haryana, India. 2Department of Agricultural Extension, BCKV, Mohanpur, West Bengal, India. 3National Research Centre on Yak, Dirang – 790101, West Kameng, Arunachal Pradesh, India], December, 2012.
The study was designed to trace out the impact of Self Help Group in women empowerment in Nadia district of West Bengal, India. Both the members (beneficiaries) and non-members (non-beneficiaries) were considered for this study. It was found that beneficiaries had higher score in all the four dimensions of empowerment, that is, personal autonomy index, family decision making index, domestic economic consultation index and political autonomy index as well as aggregate empowerment index. It may be concluded that Self Help Group approach had a significant impact on women empowerment in Nadia district of West Bengal, India.
Role of Self Help Groups (SHGs) among the Rural Farm Women in Relation to Labour Days and Income of the Seasonal Crops, Subhadip Pal, Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, W.B., India.
The study showed that most woman participants sampled in Katwa Block- I of Burdwan district, India, were young in the age group between 26 -35 years; and predominantly on nuclear families. Most woman respondents were from Hindu SC & ST and Hindu OBC households. Muslim women rarely participated as agricultural wage laborers. In agriculture, women were engaged in various activities except in ploughing. Participation of rural women in agriculture in others’ farm was highest in harvesting as well as in transplanting; and it varied with crop seasons. This study revealed that kharif was the main and busiest season of crop production; and there was a seasonability in wage employment and earning among the rural farm women. Both wage-employment and earning capacity increased among the rural women through participation in Self Help Groups. The most striking feature of this study was that there was no wage difference between the women labours of SHGs and non-SHGs.
Formation & Composition Of Self-Help Groups For Rural Development In Darjeeling Hills Of West Bengal: A Geographical Perspective, Dr. Sherap Bhutia, Assistant Professor, (W.B.E.S.), Post Graduate Dept. of Geography, Chandernagore Govt. College, West Bengal.
Here the majority of population of the study area resides in the rural areas out of which 57,436 households are classified as BPL as per 2011 Census. So the SHG’s main objective is to improve the economic condition of the rural poor by participation and performing different activities related to economic improvement. The number of SHGs so formed in Darjeeling Hills has reached up to 3995 groups in 2011 -12. This paper made an effort to study the formation of Self-Help Groups in Darjeeling Hills of West Bengal and their issues for economic and rural development. The overall findings of the study suggest that SHGs has significantly improved the access to financial services for the rural poor and has considerable positive impact on the socioeconomic conditions and the reduction of poverty of SHG members and their households. The study concludes that the Self-Help Group is a programme which is able to reach the vulnerable poor at affordable cost and can help the poor become self employed. It also depicts that rural women after joining group they access or enjoy all kind of social amenities like medical facilities, water supply services, schools for children, and there is increase in their self-confidence, communication skill, decision-making skill and transport facilities.
Gender, Poverty, And Domestic Violence In Rural Bengal: The Jeevika Development Society’s Journey Through Women’s Rights-Based Microcredit Programs by Nilanjana Sengupta, Assistant Professor, School of Women’s Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata and Dolon Ganguly, Executive Director, Jeevika Development Society, West Bengal.
This study was conducted to understand the nature of the links among gender, poverty, and violence in specific sociocultural contexts, this article unravels a complex web of interactions among the Jeevika Development Society, the communities in which its members live, and women’s individual initiatives. It also examines the process by which ruptures are made in these links through women’s active participation in the Society. The article asks whether economic outcomes facilitated by the organization have any impact, or are impacted upon, by gender relations at home, which manifest themselves through different forms of violence. It further explores whether dimensions of participation that are more social than economic, such as voluntary work with antiviolence forums as well as positions of leadership in the Society, create possibilities of empowerment that are stronger and more direct than the possibilities that may emerge through economic gains alone.
Role of Microfinance and Self-Help Groups in Empowering Fisherwomen Community in West Bengal: A Study of Two Selected Districts, Shilpa Nandy, Assistant Professor,Dept of Pol Science, Khudiram Bose Central College, Kolkata.
This paper aimed to highlight the important role that microfinance and self-help groups has played in empowering different segments of fisherwomen community, but the paper specifically focussed the fisherwomen community of two selected districts of West Bengal -Purba Midnapore and South 24 Parganas districts and their development through microfinance schemes.
Adoption behaviour of the Tribals in relation to goat keeping, Sourav Chandra, R K Ghosh, Sukanta Biswas, A Goswami, Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education, West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences. Kolkata.
The study was conducted with randomly selected goat keepers of two purposively selected blocks (Dhupguri and Rajganj) located in Terai belt of West Bengal, India. Fifty four tribal and fifty four non-tribal goat keepers which constituted the total sample size (N= 108) of the study were selected randomly from these two blocks.
The study revealed that the mean score of Education, Family Educational status, Communication source and adoption of improved practices in goat keeping were significantly high among the Non-tribal farmers than the Tribal farmers. The study also revealed that there is a significant and positive correlation between adoption of improved practices in goat keeping with education, Family educational status and communication source. The present study also identified Communication source and Family educational status as key elements that directly and indirectly promote the adoption of improved practices in goat keeping by the Tribal and Non-tribal goat keepers respectively.
A Study on the Impact of Women Self-help Groups (SHGs) on Rural Entrepreneurship Development-A Case Study in Selected Areas of West Bengal by Sreemoyee Das, A. Mitra and Md. H. Ali, Department of Agricultural Economics, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, INDIA, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 5, Issue 3, March 2015.
The emergence of women entrepreneurs and their contribution to the national economy is quite visible in India. The women entrepreneurship is seen as an effective strategy to solve the problems of rural poverty as well as urban development. It promotes the quality of life by motivating female human potential. This research work focussed some specific areas pertaining to possibilities and constraints of developing rural entrepreneurship exclusively governed by rural women SHGs. Role of SHGs for promoting rural entrepreneurship using local skills, local knowledge and local resources involving women workforce has long been emphasized . During the last three decades rural development practitioners have been focusing on SHGs as an instrument for rural- entrepreneurship development in rural sector.
Potential of Self Help Groups as an Entrepreneur: A Case Study from Uttar Dinajpur District of West Bengal by Anjali Sharma, Bikash Roy and Deepa Chakravorty from Uttar Dinajpur Krishi Vigyan Kendra, UBKV, Chopra, West Bengal, ARD Department, Govt. of West Bengal.
The study was carried out to examine the functioning and entrepreneurial activities of members of different SHGs. 25 SHGs and a sample of 300 women members were selected for the study with the specific objective to know the socio-personal background of the members of SHG, to know the knowledge, attitude and skill acquisition after getting training and financial support from different agencies. Study also identifies the entrepreneurial qualities of its members. Majority of SHGs had started their work from group savings, whereas few had taken subsidized loan from bank. Profit earned is equally shared by the members of SHG. It was observed that all the respondents had very low level of skills prior to different trainings, especially in case of trainings on vermi-compost making and fabric printing and painting etc. Change in knowledge, skill and attitude was worked out on the basis of average scores obtained from pre and post exposures. Maximum percentage of respondents had medium change in knowledge, skill and attitude.
The most exhaustive study was conducted by Self Help Group Promotional Forum, Kolkata in Status of Self Help Groups in West Bengal, 2009 – 10.
Forwarding the study Sri Tarun Kumar Debnath, Secretary, SHG Promotional Forum explained that “The objective of the present study is to capture the status in 2009-10, critically assess the issues as revealed in various studies and interactive discussions with SHG’s conducted by SHGPF and other organizations like the State Commission for Women in West Bengal and the State Institute of Panchayats and Rural Development, and to find a out possible way out for realizing the full potential of SHG movement.
This report was preceded by 4 important studies undertaken by SHGPF a) SHG Federations in West Bengal, b) Government and NGO Collaboration towards Promotion of SHG Movement in West Bengal, c) SHGs in Backward Villages of West Bengal, d) SHG and PRI convergence in West Bengal.
SHGPF has conducted large number of field workshops, orientation cum facilitation workshops at many places across the state involving grass root people and all kind of stakeholders. In addition, there were policy workshops – on NRLM, MF bill, State Policies, etc. The deliberations on the state SHG conference have also given us many cues and information.
The report is based on secondary data collected from different sources including reports, and studies made by Government and Non Government Organizations. All primary data are based either on studies conducted by SHG PF or other organizations from field sample surveys.
The secondary sources utilized are a) State Focus paper by NABARD, 2009-10; b) Annual Report by P&RDD, 2009-10; c) Status of MF 09-10 of NABARD, d) Economic Review by Government of West Bengal, 2009-10.
The study conclusively noted the problems confronting SHG’s as:
- Problem of transition from savings to credit to capability,
- The overwhelming presence of dysfunctional groups,
- Problems of banking.
- Problems caused by unfair activities of microfinance institutions and individual creditors,
- Problems of marketing,
- Lack of synchronization between training and marketing,
- Absence of a lending system in which credit on easy terms for situations of distress owning to natural calamity or family disaster is available,
- Disparities between SGSY and non SGSY schemes,
- Problems of urban SHG,
- Non-availability of data, particularly with regard to non SGSY SHG,
- Lack of coordination among different government departments and agencies engaged in SHG promotion activitie,
- Problems of group functioning within SHGs.
It concluded with the eighth chapter “The Way Forward” where specific recommendations were given, viz., in “Policy Guideline on Self Help Groups in West Bengal as proposed by the West Bengal Commission for Women” and “The statement of policy as recommended by West Bengal Commission for Women”.